Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers in their pure amine forms. The term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion and depression. Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use.
The first amphetamine pharmaceutical was Benzedrine, a brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions. Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine, Adderall, dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamine increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitter systems.
At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. It induces physical effects such as improved reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. Larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. Very high doses can result in psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia) which rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even during long-term use. Recreational doses are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a far greater risk of serious side effects.
Amphetamine belongs to the phenethylamine class. It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine. As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body. Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine, while N-methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine that differs only in the placement of the methyl group
Is Adderall An Amphetamine?
ADDERALL is a Schedule II controlled substance. Adderall and Mydayis are trade names for a combination drug called mixed amphetamine salts containing four salts of amphetamine. Amphetamines have been extensively abused. Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability have occurred.
It can help increase your ability to pay attention, stay focused on an activity, and control behavior problems. It may also help you to organize your tasks and improve listening skills. This drug is also used to treat a certain sleeping disorder (narcolepsy) to help you stay awake during the day.
What Conditions does Adderall Treat?
attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.
recurring sleep episodes during the day.
What are the benefits of Adderall for ADHD?
Adderall affects ADHD by reducing impulsivity and improving a person's attention and focus. Adderall helps people with ADHD by enhancing the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which increases activity in the central nervous system. People with clinical ADHD have brains with low dopamine function.
Is Adderall a good medication for ADHD?
Adderall is considered a first-choice treatment option for ADHD. Studies of Adderall and Adderall XR show that the drugs improve attention and focus, and reduce impulsive behaviors. Between 75 percent and 80 percent of children with ADHD will see improved symptoms with the use of stimulants such as Adderall.
Ritalin vs. Adderall
Adderall and Ritalin are both stimulant medications approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD) symptoms. Though they achieve similar symptom control, these medications have different main ingredients. Adderall delivers amphetamine/dextroamphetamine and Ritalin delivers methylphenidate.
Adderall and Ritalin have properties in common. They are both central nervous system stimulants approved for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. When taken for ADHD, these stimulants help many people improve focus and attention, and they can also reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity. It is believed that they achieve symptom control by increasing the activity of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.
Roughly 85% of patients will achieve symptom control using amphetamine or methylphenidate. Both medications work in similar ways in the brain and have similar side effects. The primary difference is that Ritalin works quickly and reaches peak performance earlier than does Adderall, which stays in the system longer.
Ritalin’s main ingredient is methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH), the same ingredient in Concerta, Contempla, Metadate, Methylin, and Quillivant. It was first approved by the FDA in 1955 for treating hyperactivity and, since the 1990s, it has become the most widely known drug for treating ADHD.
The response rate to MPH is identical to that of amphetamine — roughly 70%. That is, 70% of people will get a robust level of benefits from the first molecule they try and 30% will either get no benefits or the side effects will outweigh the benefits. For these people, the logical next step for them is to try the other class of stimulant ADHD medication: amphetamine.
Adderall is a combination of salts from levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, more commonly called amphetamine. It is generally well tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD. Although the ingredients in Adderall can be misused and abused, it is not considered habit forming when taken at prescribed doses. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release formulations.
According to a 2017 survey of ADDitude readers, 37.54 % of children with ADHD have used Adderall, the second most common medication for children with ADHD, and 32.37% have used Ritalin at some point. Among adults with ADD, 53.67% have used Adderall, the most common medication among adults, and 33.27% have used Ritalin at some point.